30 years' war

Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. [117] The collapse of local government created landless peasants, who banded together to protect themselves from the soldiers of both sides, and led to widespread rebellions in Upper Austria, Bavaria and Brandenburg. [42] Since Frederick demanded full restitution of his lands and titles, which was incompatible with the Treaty of Munich, hopes of reaching a negotiated peace quickly evaporated. [53] By the end of 1627, Wallenstein occupied Mecklenburg, Pomerania and Jutland, and began making plans to construct a fleet capable of challenging Danish control of the Baltic. [36], On 19 August, the Bohemian Estates rescinded Ferdinand's 1617 election as king, and on 26th, formally offered the crown to Frederick instead; two days later, Ferdinand was elected Emperor, making war inevitable if Frederick accepted. Intended as the basis of a wider coalition against Ferdinand, France, Sweden, Savoy and the Republic of Venice were also invited to join, but it was overtaken by events. asked the tavern drinkers in Goethe’s Faust—and the answer is no easier to find today than in the late 18th, or early 17th, century. Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and abandoning support for the German Protestants. In 1635, Ferdinand made peace with his German opponents by accepting their autonomy. The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [45], With Saxony dominating the Upper Saxon Circle and Brandenburg the Lower, both kreis had remained neutral during the campaigns in Bohemia and the Palatinate. Thirty Years’ War, (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. In late August, Gustavus incurred heavy losses in an unsuccessful assault on the town, arguably the greatest blunder in his German campaign. With the exception of England's short cameo, pretty much everyone had a prominent role to play RELEASED? It was started in 1618 by Ferdinand II, whose rise to the monarchy was marked by great dubiety on … [93], This was accompanied by a struggle for control in the East Indies and Africa, increasing Portuguese resentment against the Spanish, who were perceived as prioritising their own colonies. [60] With French resources tied up in Italy, he helped negotiate the September 1629 Truce of Altmark between Sweden and Poland, freeing Gustavus Adolphus to enter the war. This severed the Spanish Road, forcing Spain to resupply their armies in Flanders by sea, an area dominated by the Dutch navy. [81], In 1643, Frederick III of Denmark re-entered the conflict as an Imperial ally, threatening the Swedes with a war on two fronts. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [48], Ferdinand had paid Wallenstein for his support against Frederick with estates confiscated from the Bohemian rebels, and now contracted with him to conquer the north on a similar basis. [123] In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the Cologne City Council. Catholic France also entered the war, but not on the Catholic side. This threatened both Lutherans and Calvinists, paralysed the Diet and removed the perception of Imperial neutrality. 1 The Prague Defenestration 2 The Battle of White Mountain 3 The Danish War 4 The Swedish War 5 The Franco-Swedish Phase This war's roots go back to the Reformation and the spread of … It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. Anger at such tactics and his growing power came to a head in early 1628 when Ferdinand deposed the hereditary Duke of Mecklenburg, and appointed Wallenstein in his place. These actions were greeted with approval by his domestic critics, who considered his pro-Spanish policy a betrayal of the Protestant cause. In 1618, the Bohemian Estates deposed the Catholic Ferdinand II as King of Bohemia. Votes: 390 The war ended with a series of treaties collectively called as “Treaty of Westphalia” (1648). The painting is a commentary on the Thirty Years War in Europe (1618-1648) The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. The war ended with a series of treaties collectively called as “Treaty of Westphalia” (1648). "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620". In May, a combined Franco-Swedish army destroyed the last major Imperial army at Zusmarshausen, while a second Swedish force besieged Prague. [31], Ferdinand reconfirmed Protestant religious freedoms when elected king of Bohemia in May 1617, but his record in Styria led to the suspicion he was only awaiting a chance to overturn them. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. Although the battle was far from decisive, the rebels were demoralised by lack of pay, shortages of supplies and disease, while the countryside had been devastated by Imperial troops. He concluded "about 40% of the rural population fell victim to the war and epidemics; in the cities,...33%". It's angry, loud, fast hardcore music made by guys who like to ride skateboards and drink Milwaukee's Best. [115] The death toll may have improved living standards for the survivors; one study shows wages in Germany increased by 40% in real terms between 1603 and 1652. [104], Historians often refer to the 'General Crisis' of the mid-17th century, a period of sustained conflict in states such as China, the British Isles, Tsarist Russia and the Holy Roman Empire. The Thirty Years’ War profoundly altered Europe’s political landscape and social fabric. Here, in the heartland of Europe, three denominations vied for dominance: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism. Five days later, the Prince de Condé won a decisive French victory at Rocroi, although he was unable to take full advantage. One of the better ways to illustrate this is to point to the example of a Transylvanian prince, Gabriel Bethlen, who invited the Islamic Ottoman Empire into his lands so that Istanbul’s generals might have better access to Polish lands. [50] In early 1626, Cardinal Richelieu, main architect of the alliance, faced a new Huguenot rebellion; in the March Treaty of Monzón, France withdrew from Northern Italy, re-opening the Spanish Road. While both were primarily designed to support the dynastic ambitions of their leaders, they combined with events like the 1609 to 1614 War of the Jülich Succession to increase tensions throughout the Empire. The Thirty Years War was largely the war of the Counter-Reformation. Based on analysis of contemporary reports, less than 3% of civilian deaths were the result of military action; the major causes were starvation (12%), bubonic plague (64%), typhus (4%), and dysentery (5%). He did so with support from the Catholic League, despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish. With Saxony occupied by Sweden, Ferdinand III accepted the need to include them in peace negotiations. In 1938, C. V. Wedgwood argued it formed part of a wider European conflict, whose underlying cause was the ongoing contest between Austro-Spanish Habsburgs and French Bourbons. [19], Managing these issues was complicated by the fragmented nature of the Empire, a patchwork of nearly 1,800 separate entities in Germany, the Low Countries, Northern Italy, and areas like Alsace, now part of modern France. Comenius was only 26 when it started; he was an old man by its end. After the recent victory of the Catholics, Denmark felt that it's sovereignty as a Protestant country would be threatened. It began as a fight about religion — the Protestants and Catholics were the two groups that disagreed. Maximilian was desperate to end the war he was largely responsible for starting, while Mazarin feared Sweden becoming too strong; on 14 March 1647, Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden signed the Truce of Ulm. [120], At the same time, Prince-Bishop Johann von Dornheim held a similar series of large-scale witch trials in the nearby Bishopric of Bamberg. This resulted in a Gordian tangle of alliances as princes and prelates called in foreign powers to aid them. [40], The strategic importance of the Palatinate and its proximity to the Spanish Road drew in external powers; in August 1620, the Spanish occupied the Lower Palatinate. The ancient notion of a Roman Catholic empire of Europe, headed spiritually by a pope and temporally by an emperor, was permanently abandoned, and the essential structure of modern Europe as a community of sovereign states was established. The Thirty Years War is the series of conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire and its surroundings, between 1618 and 1648. The Russo-Polish Peace of Polyanov in 1634 ended Poland’s claim to the tsarist throne but freed Poland to resume hostilities against its Baltic archenemy, Sweden, which was now deeply embroiled in Germany. By weakening the Habsburgs while increasing the status of France and Sweden, it led to a new balance of power on the continent. [63], Expectations of widespread support proved unrealistic; by the end of 1630, the only new Swedish ally was Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the population died.[15]. Thirty Years’ War, (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. The combination destabilised large parts of the Empire. The Thirty Years’ War had a profound impact on Europe, and some of the consequences of this war can be seen in the changes that were made to European society. Define 30 years war. Prompted by France, the rebels proclaimed the Catalan Republic in January 1641. [96], Externally, the treaties formally acknowledged the independence of the Dutch Republic and the Swiss Confederacy, effectively autonomous since 1499. Gustavus Adolphus despatched several thousand Scots and Swedish troops under Alexander Leslie to Stralsund, who was appointed governor. The main character crisscrosses Europe at war in his role as messenger; he witnesses the 1634 battle of Nordlingen, among other events. Chronic financial weakness meant prior to 1619 the Austrian Habsburgs had no standing army of any size, leaving them dependent on Maximilian and their Spanish relatives for money and men. [49], In the June 1624 Treaty of Compiègne, France subsidised the Dutch war against Spain for a minimum of three years. 4.6 out of 5 stars 29. [119] They originated in the Bishopric of Würzburg, an area with a history of such events going back to 1616 and now re-ignited by Bishop von Ehrenberg, a devout Catholic eager to assert the church's authority in his territories. In Lorraine, the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, occupied by France since 1552, were formally ceded, as were the cities of the Décapole in Alsace, with the exception of Strasbourg and Mulhouse. Eventually, more than 200 states, great and small, participated in the Thirty Years’ War. [54], In May 1628, his deputy von Arnim besieged Stralsund, the only port with large enough shipbuilding facilities, but this brought Sweden into the war. Jun 2nd 2011. [111] Nearly 50% of these losses appear to have been incurred during the first period of Swedish intervention from 1630 to 1635. In addition, Lutherans could keep lands or property taken from the Catholic Church since the 1552 Peace of Passau. [73], After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. [23], As a result, when the Imperial Diet opened in February 1608, the Protestants demanded formal confirmation of the Augsburg settlement, which was especially significant for Calvinists like Frederick IV, Elector Palatine who had not been included. After Frederick was deposed in 1623, John George of Saxony and the Calvinist George William of Brandenburg feared Ferdinand intended to reclaim former Catholic bishoprics currently held by Lutherans (see Map). [103], It has been argued the Peace established the principle known as Westphalian sovereignty, the idea of non-interference in domestic affairs by outside powers, although this has since been challenged. Delivering these commitments required his election as Emperor, which was not guaranteed; one alternative was Maximilian of Bavaria, who opposed the increase of Spanish influence in an area he considered his own, and tried to create a coalition with Saxony and the Palatinate to support his candidacy. Gustavus signed an alliance with Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, securing his interests in Pomerania against the Catholic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, another Baltic competitor linked to Ferdinand by family and religion. [67] He won major victories at Breitenfeld in September 1631, then Rain in April 1632, where Tilly was killed. Ferdinand accepted the supremacy of the Imperial Diet and legal institutions, reconfirmed the Augsburg settlement, and recognised Calvinism as a third religion. The Thirty Years War, a multifaceted and multinational political and military conflict that raged over central Europe between 1618 and 1648 has often been considered, at least in the scope of misery and destruction it brought to those experiencing it, as a disaster comparable to, if not greater than, the two world wars and the Black Death. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf; he was allowed to annex Donauwörth to recover his costs, turning a Lutheran town Catholic. The Battle of Rocroi in 1643, was the first defeat of the Spanish army in over a century, and could be considered a turning point in the war. Eventually, however, it came to involve political control and territory as well. "Thirty Years War" recreates this conflict with the award winning wargame system used in GMT's Wilderness War, Paths of Glory, and For the People. [18] In addition, rulers might share the same religion but have different economic and strategic objectives; for much of the war, the Papacy supported France against the Habsburgs. The French candidate, Charles I Gonzaga, was confirmed as Duke of Mantua; although Richelieu's representative, Cardinal Mazarin, agreed to evacuate Pinerolo, it was later secretly returned under an agreement with Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy. The Thirty Years' War was a massive continental clusterfuck European religious war fought between 1618 and 1648. Torstensson expelled the Danes from Bremen-Verden and occupied Jutland; after a decisive naval defeat at Fehmarn in October 1644, the Danes sued for peace. Outcome of Thirty Years War The result of the thirty year war was that the German princes could choose their own religion, as long as it was one of the big three . [52], Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. Thirty years' war definition, the war, often regarded as a series of wars (1618–48), in central Europe, initially involving a conflict between German Protestants and Catholics and later including political rivalries with France, Sweden, and Denmark opposing the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. They ranged in size and importance from the seven Prince-electors who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, down to Prince-bishoprics and City-states, such as Hamburg. The chief agents of the Counter-Reformation were similarly split, the Jesuits generally backing Austria, the Capuchins France. The conflict lasted, unceasing, for 30 years, making it the longest continuous war in modern history. Its main provisions included Spanish confirmation of Dutch independence and acceptance of "German liberties" by the Austrian Habsburgs. For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance. • La vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo (Antwerp, 1646): The last of the great Spanish Golden Age picaresque novels, this is set against the background of the Thirty Years' War. Although von Hatzfeldt defeated a Swedish-English-Palatine force at Vlotho in October 1638, the capture of Breisach by Bernhard in December secured French control of Alsace. The emperor's prerogatives had never been clearly defined; a ruler who knew how to exploit his considerable informal powers of patronage could enjoy a great deal of authority, but a weak monarch could easily be reduced to a mere figurehead.

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